Obrenovac – Free-standing multi-family residential building
- Type of work: Key to success
- Number of floors: GF + 4 floors (Building A) GF + 5 floors (Building B)
- Start date: 01/11/2015
- End date: 01/06/2016+
On plot no. 1457/1 KO Obrenovac in the Municipality of Obrenovac, City of Belgrade, is a free-standing multifamily residential building consisting of 2 buildings with entrance “A” and entrance “B”. The building is placed parallel to the northwest and southeast border of the plot, between the streets Posavskih Norvežana and Đački bataljon. The building is 5 m away from the ground floor in relation to the regulation line The floors in some places stretch 1.20 m towards Đačkog bataljona Street, or 1.39 m towards Posavskih Norvežana Street.
The pedestrian access to the building is on the northwest side from Posavskih Norvežana Street by external staircases and ramps, leading from the internal pedestrian road to the access plateau at the ground floor level of the building. The building has two independent entrances, “A” and “B”.
The position of the building, pedestrian access and access for cars, the position and number of open parking spaces are all determined by the architectural design, and they are in accordance with conditions of the location. There are 23 parking spaces in the open or partially covered parking lot, 3 of which are for the disabled. Parking spaces are accessed via 4 car entrances, 3 entrances from Posavskih Norvežana Street, and one car entrance from Đačkog bataljona Street. At the northern and southern ends of the building, on the ground floor, there are covered passages under which cars can pass and be parked on the land lot.
As the building is located in a place with a large denivelation (about 1.10 m) between the two access roads, an embankment is made according to the Geomechanical Study, which allows connecting these two roads with a ramp, in order to enable pedestrian access from Posavskih Norvežana Street.
The space for dumpsters is located on the plateau next to car entrance 1 from Posavskih Norvežana street.
On the plot, the construction of a residential building with two buildings for multi-family social housing, with two separate entrances, Building “A” of floors GF + 4, and Building “B” of floors GF + 5 is designed. The building has a total of 32 apartments, 16 apartments in each of the building, and a total net area of 2,037.41 m2 or a gross area of 2,468.49 m2. The dimensions of the building are 54.03 × 12.13 m.
The ground floor has a total net area of 230.24 m2 and it includes two entrances with windshield, stairwell with hallway and elevator, three apartments (1 at entrance A, 2 at entrance B), 2 common rooms, 2 storages for tools and heating substation at the entrance “B”. Floors from the first to the fourth have a total net area of ~ 433 m2 (more detailed data on floor areas can be seen in the numerical and graphic documentation of the project) and include 3-5 residential units at each entrance – depending on the functional distribution and stair space with hallway. The fifth floor is located only in Building “B”, and includes 2 residential units and a staircase with a hallway. The net area of the fifth floor is 85.17 m2.
The apartments have different structures and their area ranges from 28 m2 to 91 m2. Each residential unit contains an entrance area, bathroom and toilet depending on the structure, a multipurpose living room with kitchenette, and a bedroom or more bedrooms. A dining room is also planned as part of the multi-purpose living room.
- TOTAL NET OF THE BUILDING: 2.037,41 m2
- TOTAL GROSS AREA OF THE BUILDING: 2.468,49 m2
The basic construction system of the building is a reinforced concrete skeleton. It consists of semi-assembled AB panels of the LMT type, which, over the AB beams, are set on AB columns and walls. An AB core is provided within the elevator space, d of the wall = 16cm. The facade perimeter walls are made of 19 cm thick hollow clay blocks.
The transverse walls are made of 19 cm thick hollow clay blocks, except for the walls between the apartments, which are made of 20 cm thermo brick, similar to the “Zorka Klimablok” type. The longitudinal walls are made of 19 cm hollow clay blocks, except for the walls between the apartments and the walls towards the hallway, which are made of 20 cm thermo bricks, similar to the “Zorka Klimablok” type. The walls are built in 1: 2: 6 extension mortar, with horizontal and vertical circles in everything according to the technical documentation. The internal structural walls between the apartments are made of thermo blocks, similar to the type “Zorka Klimablok”, thickness d = 20 cm. The partition walls are made of hollow bricks with a thickness of d = 12 cm. In the height of the lintel beam along the entire length of the partition wall, a circular beam measuring 12/20 cm is made with concrete.
The foundations of the building are made from foundation beams 90 cm wide on the perimeter walls, 160 cm on the transverse load-bearing walls and single foundations measuring 250 × 250 cm on the part of the passage on the ground floor below the external columns. The elevator is stationed on a foundation slab d = 50 cm. The access plateau, ramp and stairs are placed on lanes 40 cm wide. All foundation beams are 50 cm high, and are made of reinforced concrete C25 / 30 according to architectural drawings and static calculation. The foundation is done at 80 cm below the point of the lowest elevation of the existing terrain, i.e., at 74.46 m.
The floor slab of the ground floor is reinforced concrete 10 cm thick. Under the hollow brick partition walls d = 20 cm, the foundation cerclage is done at the level of the floor slabs.
The mezzanine structure above the ground floor and first floor is a semi-assembled roof made of fert beams and filler type LMT, 16 + 4 cm thick, and all cantilever terraces are full reinforced concrete slabs 15 cm thick. The staircase is a monolithic reinforced concrete slab d = 15cm. The net height of the room inside the building is 2.60 m (from the finished floor), except in the room of the heating substation, where the slab is recessed by 20 cm to obtain a net height of 2.80 m, as required in the conditions of the Toplovoda Obrenovac for the newly designed heating substation.
The roof structure of the building consists of single-pitched roofs (KK1-KK5), with a slope of 7⁰ or 10⁰, a wooden roof structure with common rafters. The roof is covered with plasticized galvanized sheet metal on a wooden floor. Above the balconies, there is a flat roof (K3) with a slope of 2%, with a light steel construction, with a TPO membrane as a cover on the floor made of OSB boards.
Due to the length, constructive dilatation is planned – in the middle of the building in the axes 7 and 7 ′, between which there is placed Styrofoam of 5 cm. On the ground floor, the slab on the ground is dilated in axes 7 and 7 ′, where is also a 5 cm thick Styrofoam, placed between the slab and the wall. Dilatation starts from the foundation, and the roof structure needs to be dilated with a roof overhang, that protrudes above the roof at a height of 50 cm, in all respects according to the architectural project.
Excavation is done by machine (90%) and manually (10%) in category II land.
Under each foundation strip, it is necessary to replace the soil in the following layers: gravel subbase d = 20 cm (fractions 0-31). Under the ground floor slab and the floor foundation slab of the elevator core, it is necessary to make an embankment in the following layers: “dirty gravel” d = 30 cm, gravel subbase of natural mixture d = 20 cm (fractions 0-31).
Protection against underground moisture is done by installing bitumen waterproofing similar to the IZOTEMV4 type over the AB slab on the ground. Before welding the bitumen for the floor slab, coat all penetrations of vertical circles in the width of 40/60 cm with a polymer-cement coating.
The roofs of the building are made as single-pitched roofs with a slope of 7 ° or 10 °. The roof covering is a flat galvanized steel plasticized sheet metal d = 0.60 mm which is placed over the bitumen-based roof waterproofing with a glass veil insert similar to the Izolim type. Izolim is placed over a wooden base on wooden rafters. Ventilation and chimney ducts protrude above the roof at a height of 1 m in relation to the place of penetration of the roof plane.
Facade walls are covered with expanded polystyrene panels similar to the type Austrotherm EPS AF d = 12 cm, or d = 5 cm on the bay windows of the hallway, all according to the project. The finishing of the façade walls is in layers: styropor glue, mesh, styropor glue, “BAVALIT *” in the color chosen by the designer.
The concrete wall of the plinth is covered with 5 cm thick styrofoam, with finishing layer of the color chosen by the designer.
* BAVALIT: two-component mineral mortar (component A: dry mix, component B: ACRYLIC EMULSION; component A : component B = 8 : 1)
The treatment of the interior walls of the ground floor and first floor apartments is performed by plastering the walls with 1: 3: 9 lime mortar in two layers, smoothing and painting with semi-dispersion. The hall of the building and the stairwells are plastered with 1: 3: 9 lime mortar, smoothed and painted with semi-dispersion. The walls of the tool shed, hallway, substation coated with stone wool d = 5 are first treated with glue for and mesh in two layers, and then finally applied Bavalit in white, as well as the walls of the elevator to the apartments on which is placed 9 cm stone wool due to sound insulation.
In toilets and bathrooms, the walls are covered with first class ceramic tiles up to the ceiling, and in the kitchen to a height of 1.50 m. All tiles are placed on the glue.
The treatment of the ceiling is performed by plastering with lime mortar 1: 3: 9 in two layers.
The ground floor is made of thermal insulation made of 12 cm thick styrofoam, similar to the Austrotherm XPS 30 type – in the form of a cement layer d = 5 cm, which is poured on PVC foil. Due to the thickness of the thermal insulation, the layer needs to be reinforced with reinforcement mesh. The floor of the apartment floor is made as a floating floor with sound insulation Austrotherm EPS T650 d = 3 cm, with PVC foil and cement layer reinforced with polypropylene fibers.
The finishing of the floor in the apartments is laminate d = 0.8 mm placed on polyester felt, with a finished oak molding that is placed around the perimeter of the room.
The finishing of the bathroom floors, kitchen, terrace is made with first-class ceramic tiles, while the floors of the common communications and rooms are made of first-class granite ceramics. All external ceramics must be non-slip and frost-resistant.
Floors in bathrooms and terraces are waterproofed with a cement-based coating similar to the ISOMAT AQUAMAT-ELASTIC type in everything according to the details and descriptions in the project. All the ceramics is done in the project predicted by the falls and according to the author’s choice. It is necessary to separate all cement layers from the walls with styrofoam d = 3 cm in order to prevent the sound transmission through the construction.
The surrounding pedestrian access paths and parking lots are made of Behaton slabs for exterior with a layer of sand. The roads are completely asphalted, in everything according to the project of roads and traffic and traffic signals.
Exterior carpentry and locksmithing
The construction of the window frame and sash is made of five-chamber white PVC profiles similar to the Vujić S-7000 type.
The entrance door to the building is made of aluminum profiles with thermal break.
The entrance door to the pantry is single-leaf, and the substation is double-leaf made of galvanized steel sheet with cardboard honeycomb filling.
Protective fences on French balconies and loggias are made of galvanized steel perforated plasticized sheet metal on a construction of steel box profiles.
The ramp for pedestrians and wheelchairs is made of square steel pipes, with two handrails at a height of 60 cm and 90 cm, all according to the locksmithing schemes. Fences of internal staircases and railings on skylights are made of steel pipes of square cross-section and filled with steel, all according to the locksmithing schemes.
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